OIC Outlook - Archive

Since November 2007, the Centre has been preparing short outlook reports on various socio-economic development topics related to the OIC Member States. Using the Centre’s main database “BASEIND”, these reports present statistical information and analytical investigations on the topics under consideration, enriched with figures and tables. The topics of these reports include, among others, demography and structure of population, size and structure of the economy, saving and investment, structure and direction of trade, labour productivity, health, tourism, gender, food security, etc. The selected OIC Outlook Reports are also published in the Centre’s Economic Cooperation and Development Review as well as.

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Early Childhood Care and Education In OIC Countries
The term Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE), has been used by UNESCO to refer to all organized developmental services for children during the period from birth until a child enters primary education, which is age 6 or 7 in most countries. ECCE services are holistic in approach and include various programmes in basically three areas: 1) health, nutrition, hygiene 2) cognitive, social, emotional and physical development; and 3) social protection. ECCE programmes address different age groups ranging from infancy, preschool, kindergarten to early primary grades. Early Childhood Care Programmes are generally for children under age 3 (under-3s) and supervised by ministries of health and/or social affairs. Early Childhood Education Programmes are mostly for children over age 3 (over-3s) and governed by ministries of education. The former is found in around half of the countries in the world, while the latter is existent in all (UNESCO, Global Monitoring Report (GMR), 2008). Duration of each programme varies by country.
Global Food Price Crisis: Impact on Food Security and Malnutrition in The OIC Member States
Food security refers to sufficient and easy access to safe and nutritious food that meets the dietary requirement of an individual to maintain a healthy life. A household is considered food in-secured when its occupants live in hunger or in fear of starvation. Undernourishment is a direct consequence of food insecurity, when caloric intake is below the minimum dietary requirement (FAO, 2009). Unfortunately, due to rising population of the world, current economic crisis, scarcity of resources and the recent food price crises, the absolute number of undernourished population in the world is on the rise. According to recent FAO estimates, the number of undernourished people in the world may exceed one billion. Malnutrition is a condition that results from unbalanced diet and is one of the direct consequences of sustained periods of hunger and undernourishment. According to the World Health Organization, malnutrition is one of the gravest threats to the world’s public health. In particular, malnutrition is one of the major causes of high child mortality rates, underweight births, low life expectancy and a major risk factor of tuberculosis. It has also been known and well documented in the literature that malnutrition has a direct bearing in slowing down economic growth and in aggravating poverty.
The State of Polio in OIC Member Countries
Polio or Poliomyelitis is a communicable disease caused by a virus that lives in throat and intestinal tract. Poliovirus attacks the nervous system and in some cases can paralyze the victim instantly. There are three types of poliovirus: Type 1 (PV1) or Mahoney; Type 2 (PV2) or Lansing; and Type 3(PV3) or Leon. It is usually transmitted through person to person contact with the faeces or oral/nasal secretions of an infected person. Therefore, it spreads rapidly especially in those communities that are living in very poor hygienic and sanitation conditions. People of all ages can get infected by the Polio; however children under five years of age are the most likely to be infected by the virus.
Transportation Networks in the OIC Member Countries: Impact on Trade and Tourism

Transportation is an indispensable element in any economic activity. Without physical access to resources and markets, economic growth and development cannot be possible. An efficient multimodal transportation system is, therefore, a fundamental element in sustainable economic development. It facilitates the transfer and movements of people, goods, services and resources and improves access to local and international markets. The development of modern and efficient multimodal transportation infrastructures and services, together with adequate and coherent relevant laws and regulations, are also crucial factors for enhancing and strengthening regional economic cooperation and integration.

Human Capital Accumulation in OIC Member Countries

Human capital refers to the knowledge and capabilities embodied in people that can be utilized to advance the production techniques and contribute to the social and economic development. The term “human capital” is used because people cannot be separated from their knowledge or skills in the way they can be separated from their financial and tangible assets. Along with physical capital stock, human capital stock is one of the factors of production in determining the economic prosperity and progression, with the stock of human capital playing an important role in determining the ability to absorb new knowledge and technologies, and thus increasing labour productivity. Productivity growth in turn is a key factor in promoting long-term economic growth. The role of education in increasing the productivity and efficiency of labour force by increasing the cognitive stock of economically productive human capability is well acknowledged.